Friday, May 22, 2020

Aswan High Dam Controls the Nile River

Just north of the border between Egypt and Sudan lies the Aswan High Dam, a huge rockfill dam which captures the worlds longest river, the Nile River, in the worlds third-largest reservoir, Lake Nasser. The dam, known as Saad el Aali in Arabic, was completed in 1970 after ten years of work. Egypt has always depended on the water of the Nile River. The two main tributaries of the Nile River are the White Nile and the Blue Nile. The sources of the White Nile are the Sobat River and Bahr al-Jabal (the Mountain Nile), and the Blue Nile begins in the Ethiopian Highlands. The two tributaries converge in Khartoum, the capital of Sudan, where they form the Nile River. The Nile River has a total length of 4,160 miles (6,695 kilometers) from source to sea. Nile Flooding Before the building of a dam at Aswan, Egypt experienced annual floods from the Nile River that deposited four million tons of nutrient-rich sediment which enabled agricultural production. This process began millions of years before Egyptian civilization began in the Nile River valley and continued until the first dam at Aswan was built in 1889. This dam was insufficient to hold back the water of the Nile and was subsequently raised in 1912 and 1933. In 1946, the true danger was revealed when the water in the reservoir peaked near the top of the dam. In 1952, the interim Revolutionary Council government of Egypt decided to build a High Dam at Aswan, about four miles upstream of the old dam. In 1954, Egypt requested loans from the World Bank to help pay for the cost of the dam (which eventually added up to one billion dollars). Initially, the United States agreed to loan Egypt money but then withdrew their offer for unknown reasons. Some speculate that it may have been due to Egyptian and Israeli conflict. The United Kingdom, France, and Israel had invaded Egypt in 1956, soon after Egypt nationalized the Suez Canal to help pay for the dam. The Soviet Union offered to help and Egypt accepted. The Soviet Unions support was not unconditional, however. Along with the money, they also sent military advisers and other workers to help enhance Egyptian-Soviet ties and relations. Building of the Aswan Dam In order to build the Aswan Dam, both people and artifacts had to be moved. Over 90,000 Nubians had to be relocated. Those who had been living in Egypt were moved about 28 miles (45 km) away, but the Sudanese Nubians were relocated 370 miles (600 km) from their homes. The government was also forced to develop one of the largest Abu Simel temples and dig for artifacts before the future lake would drown the land of the Nubians. After years of construction (the material in the dam is the equivalent to 17 of the great pyramids at Giza), the resulting reservoir was named after the former president of Egypt, Gamal Abdel Nasser, who died in 1970. The lake holds 137 million acre-feet of water (169 billion cubic meters). About 17 percent of the lake is in Sudan and the two countries have an agreement for distribution of the water. Aswan Dam Benefits and Problems The Aswan Dam benefits Egypt by controlling the annual floods on the Nile River and prevents the damage which used to occur along the floodplain. The Aswan High Dam provides about half of Egypts power supply and has improved navigation along the river by keeping the water flow consistent. There are several problems associated with the dam as well. Seepage and evaporation account for a loss of about 12-14% of the annual input into the reservoir. The sediments of the Nile River, as with all river and dam systems, has been filling the reservoir and thus decreasing its storage capacity. This has also resulted in problems downstream. Farmers have been forced to use about a million tons of artificial fertilizer as a substitute for the nutrients which no longer fill the floodplain. Further downstream, the Nile delta is having problems due to the lack of sediment as well since there is no additional agglomeration of sediment to keep erosion of the delta at bay, so it slowly shrinks. Even the shrimp catch in the Mediterranean Sea has decreased due to the change in water flow. Poor drainage of the newly irrigated lands has led to saturation and increased salinity. Over one-half of Egypts farmland in now rated medium to poor soils. The parasitic disease schistosomiasis has been associated with the stagnant water of the fields and the reservoir. Some studies indicate that the number of individuals affected has increased since the opening of the Aswan Dam. The Nile River and now the Aswan High Dam are Egypts lifeline. About 95% of Egypts population live within twelve miles from the river. Were it not for the river and its sediment, the grand civilization of ancient Egypt probably would have never existed.

Saturday, May 9, 2020

Project Group Tips

Project Group Tips There are a few things you can do in order to make working in groups a bit easier and to make you an amazing team member when assigned to a group undertaking. Investing in real estate is about the numbers. There's no city tag for Boston, as it's the original site. You also will likely observe that a number of the groups are so important they define who you are. After developing a project group, it's possible to effectively organize and manage the groups depending on your preferences. You have to decide what is perfect for your group. Again, there are 3 groups inside an organization. Packages provide a modular library strategy to developing applications. Projects can consist of multiple actions and deliverable components or they may just have a single step. Click Alphabetical Sort should you wish to reorder projects alphabetically. Project management is the duty of a project manager. The NASA File constitutes the majority of the papers. Failed projects are a breeze to recognize. Organizations might get several projects at a moment. Higher Employability In PMP training, you cannot be a manager if you are unable to deal with a simple situation or problem. Strength training was created around balance. Certification shows they actually know the skills required for the job and have the ability to manage day-to-day routines. Earning project manager certifications can result in training for many diverse jobs. Even if you have the most prosperous company in the Earth, synergy effect of partnership and co-operation can bring your company to a new degree of succeeding. For instance, let's say a business is thinking about developing a business intelligence program product which will allow organizations to predict customer buying pattern. For instance, if one company produces the materials employed by its partner company, and the partner organization is ready to supply some products at a really low cost or even free in any way, it can lessen the expenses of both companies significantly. Sometimes, two companies compete with one another in the marketplace. Monthly, the entire group can get together to discuss everybody's progress. Earth lay behind the opposite side of the portal. The most important advantage of training in a group is the fact that it encourages you to practice daily and permits the job of planning part of your routine. You willingly take part in the group procedure and production of content. For instance, you may have several Fixed-price project group types, one for every one of your business's revenue recognition scenarios. The very first company attempts to offer you the most intriguing deals to suppliers. The Birth of the Project Group In the event the project group doesn't examine the approximation as being a commitment, then there's hardly any chance the estimate will be fulfilled. Not learning from passed projects is a dependable method to fail in the construction of experience! Dr. Who journeys through time in an extremely advanced time machine which is named TARDIS. If you still have enough time and energy you're able to switch this up in the exact next session. The work was done, the money was spent without council authorization. In reality it's a superb example! It may also allow it to be feasible for your company to survive in the industry. Take a look at our writing services reviews and find out how top rated essay writing companies do the job. The Hidden Facts on the Project Group The actor may be a human or another system. These tables provide additional information about the requirements for altering the project group type as soon as the original project comprises certain kinds of transactions. Operational project management utilizes the exact tools and techniques, and acts under the exact ailments. The focus isn't on the topic of the project but instead on people, tasks and systems. Part of genealogy requires the examination of old photographs in order to spot subjects and time periods. If you would like to learn more on the subject of project management ouronline PMP training or CAPM trainingwill steer you through every facet of process groups.

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Biography of Dr Grace Murrary Hopper Free Essays

Dr. Grace Murray Hopper was born on December 9, 1906. As a child Grace Hopper enjoyed learning about machines, technology and other countries cultures. We will write a custom essay sample on Biography of Dr Grace Murrary Hopper or any similar topic only for you Order Now Following her mother†s love for mathematics and her father†s love for literature, Grace had high expectations for herself. Family life was large influence as she grew up, from the close relationship she had with her grandfather, a surveyor in New York City, she learned about real life at a young age. Her father, Walter Fletcher Murray, was a successful insurance broker, also taught Grace the importance of a good education to succeed in life. Her mother, Mary Campbell Horne Murray, perused a career in geometry by special arrangement even though it was not an encouraged job for women at this time. Grace’s great-grandfather, Alexander Russel, inspired her interest in the Navy. Russel had been a rear admiral for the US Navy, a position Grace also filled in her lifetime. Grace’s parents were progressive in their views of education for females, firmly certifying Grace’s pursuit of higher learning. Her father believed that Grace deserved a college education as much as his son did, and, with the coming of the depression, he thought it overbearing in order to secure a job in desperate economic times. To that end, Grace attended Vassar College in 1924, and quickly distinguished herself there in the disciplines of science, specifically mathematics and physics. She graduated in 1928 with Phi Beta Kappa honors and a Vassar College Fellowship, and with that scholarship financed continued graduate study in math at Yale University, earning there an MA in 1930 and a Ph. D. in 1934, as well as two Sterling Scholarships and an election to Sigma Xi. It was also during that time that Grace married Vincent Hopper, an English teacher from New York University. After the outbreak of World War II, Grace enlisted in the Navy, despite the disapproval of female cadets. With a Wanting to follow her Grandfathers footsteps Grace perused a naval career even though she did not meet the weight and height requirements to join WAVES (Women Accepted for Voluntary Emergency Service). But Grace received a weight and height waiver and took a leave of absence from Vassar College to join the Navy, even though the government thought that Grace’s mathematics skills would be better used at home. But she overcame this obstacle too and joined the Midshipman†s School for Women. Grace graduated first in her class as Lieutenant Junior Grade Grace Murray Hopper. From there Grace was assigned to work at the Bureau of Ordnance Computation Project, at Harvard University, to work with computers. Hopper worked under Commander Howard Aiken, and helped work with the Mark I, the first computer automatically sequenced to calculate the angles for the naval guns when the weather is bad. Hopper continued to work on the Mark II and the Mark III. For her achievements with this series she was given the Naval Ordinance Award in 1946. After the War many of the WAVES went back to their normal lives, but Grace, having just divorced her husband Vincent Foster Hopper, wanted to stay in the Navy. But Grace had just turned forty and the maximum age was thirty-eight, so Grace had to leave. She stayed at the Harvard Computational Lab, still being a member of the Naval Reserves. In 1966, the Navy asked Hopper to retire again, but after seven months, they found they couldn’t work without her and asked her return. Grace was asked to return to work for six months, but she ended up staying indefinitely. Upon graduating, Grace was assigned to the Bureau of Ordinance Computation at Harvard University. There she was greeted by Commander Howard Aiken who introduced her to Mark I as â€Å"a computer engine†. After coming acquainted with the device, Grace received her first mission from Aiken, which was â€Å"to have the coefficients for the interpolation of the arc tangents by next Thursday†. Officers Robert Campbell and Richard Bloch assisted her in the design of her computer program, which consequently made her the third person ever to program the first large-scale automatically sequenced digital computer in the world. When Grace was programming it, Mark I was being used to calculate the angles at which naval guns were to be aimed. A plethora of calculations were needed because the angles depended on weather conditions. Creating programs for the machine was similarly tedious for Grace and the company. â€Å"The coding sheets we used had three columns on the left [for code numbers] and we wrote comments on the right which didn’t go into the computer,† as she said. The values were translated to punch tape, which was subsequently input into the computer. With the accustomed problems associated with the Mark development and the inherent difficulty in its programming, results were slow achievements. One of their many problems was the proverbial computer bug, except that this time it was a literal problem. During the building of the Mark II, the predecessor of the former computer engine, the computer suddenly and for no apparent reason stopped. Upon inspection of the computer, Grace and her team found a moth, which had flown into a relay from an open window. The moth had been pulverized by the relay and consequently had caused the device to fail. The term â€Å"bug† was thus popularized to signify any system malfunction. A new machine BINAC was soon developed programmed in the more effective C-10 language, which according to Grace, â€Å"has been the basis for most codes since. A was add, M was multiply, B was bring, C was clear; it was a beautiful code. † Performed in octal, the programs forced Grace to teach herself octal arithmetic, which she eventually mastered with great proficiency. She subsequently realized a need to simplify the computing process, to make it more layperson friendly. Grace pursued different avenues to achieve this goal. Grace created her first compiler with the Sperry Corporation in 1952. Known as the A-0, the system was a set of instructions that translated mathematical code into machine language. Later the A-1 and A-2 systems evolved under her direction, and became the forerunner to modern programming languages. She pioneered the integration of English into programs, as well, with the B-0 compiler, later to be known as the FLOW-MATIC. Targeted for business applications, Grace’s machine were effectively using FLOW-MATIC to understand English phrases. By 1957 three major languages existed for computers: APT, FORTRAN, and FLOW-MATIC. Each language, however, could only operate on a specific platform, and with the proliferation of disparate languages the use of a single, uniform format came into demand. The universal language to remedy this problem was COBOL, and even though she was not involved in the project, much of which was based on Grace’s FLOW-MATIC. Throughout Grace Hopper’s life she achieved many awards that other women had never been recognized for. In 1964 she was awarded the Society of Women Engineers, SWE Achievement Award. Many people think of the Computer Sciences â€Å"Man of the Year Award† her greatest achievement. When she received this award in 1969, she was the first person ever assigned this award, and the first women to be presented any award by the Data Processing Management Association. Grace was the first woman to be inducted into the Distinguished Fellow British Computer Society in 1973. Grace also achieved many awards from the Colleges and Universities that she attended and taught at, such as the Upsilon Pi Epsilon, Honorary Member from Texas AM; Honorary Doctor of Engineering, Newark College of Engineering; Wilbur Lucius Cross Medal and Yale University. Grace taught at many colleges and universities in her life and gave many motivational speeches, her favorite teaching aid was a piece of wire that was the length of a nanosecond (about one foot), the maximum distance electricity can travel in wire in one-billionth of a second. She would then compare the nano-second to the microsecond that was over a thousand feet long. On January 1, 1992, Grace Hopper died at the age of 85. Even after her death Grace continues to influence many peoples lives. The impact she had on the world of programming has changed computers forever. She also influenced the naval and other military services through her perseverance and her plans for the future. She refused to let anything get in the way of her success. How to cite Biography of Dr Grace Murrary Hopper, Essay examples

Wednesday, April 29, 2020

Save the Girl Child free essay sample

I don’t know about the world but in India every two seconds a child is born and maybe by the time I end this essay, hundreds of babies would’ve already been born. So what makes giving birth so special? I mean it’s just a simple process of human evolution! Well the answer to this can only be given by the mothers who have experienced that magical moment of giving birth to a child. In medical terms it’s called ‘delivery’, but the emotions that are involved in this simple term called delivery can’t be possible explained in words. The joy of having a baby is just boundless, but unfortunately for some it’s a moment of disappointment. Yes sometimes getting pregnant comes as a surprise and teenage pregnancy is an issue that has to be dealt with and measures like abortion is totally justifiable in that case but the thing I don’t understand is that why are abortions being done just because the GENDER of the baby is not what the parents expected to be. We will write a custom essay sample on Save the Girl Child or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Surveys proved that 98% of gender based abortions are done when the sex of the child is female. Now I cannot think of something more shameful than this, how on earth could anyone, especially any mother could kill a life which is within them just because it’s a girl? Don’t we have any kind of conscience? Why don’t we even rethink before doing such a heinous act? †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Are we the condemned? Every child is a gift of God, and we should happily accept whatever the holy one has sent us. The journey of a life starts under the mother’s womb, at first it’s a tiny embryo then gradually it develops its eyes, ears, and nose nd eventually comes out its limbs and then it takes the shape of a tiny little human baby. Through all this the baby is unaware of the outside world, for them their entire world is under their mother’s womb with just an umbilical cord joining them to their mother. Innocently it kicks inside the mother’s belly to make her aware of its presence. All they want is to come out and feel the world they are born into but wait, there has been a mistake†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. Something isn’t right†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. he baby is a girl†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦! All of a sudden everything changes. All its plans, all she dreamt about the world are now just like shattered pieces of broken glasses. She doesn’t even get a chance to defend herself, no matter how hard she kicks to make her mother not to kill her but all of this in vain. She tries to run away but she can’t because she is trapped inside the womb. She cries, she yells, she pleads for her life, but ultimately she is murdered just because she is a girl. The Indian government has now declared gender based abortions illegal, even the gender of the baby is remained classified and is only disclosed after the baby is born. Several campaigns have been launched in order to protect the girl child. The Times Of India group has been also been actively participating in the process of saving the girl child. It gives me immense pride that I could be a part of it and I salute ONGC for spreading awareness by encouraging activities like this. I hope we succeed in our mission and make the world a safer place for our sisters. Before ending I just want to share the fact that, my mother gave me life, nurtured me and helped me become a man. My sister gave me companionship, she was with me when I was lonely and always supported me. I cannot even imagine my life without these two ladies. The thing I want to explain is that women are a very integral part of our life without them life won’t have been possible. So instead of killing them, if we start to support and respect their existence then I think that would be the greatest contribution from our side. â€Å"Save our sisters, save the girl child†

Friday, March 20, 2020

We Find The Defendant Guilty Of All Charges! Essays - Free Essays

We Find The Defendant Guilty Of All Charges! Essays - Free Essays "We find the defendant guilty of all charges!" Romeo and Juliet Essay It is known that in Shakespeare?s tragedies main characters die in the end, and in his comedies people marry. Since Romeo and Juliet is a tragedy, Romeo and Juliet are going to die in the end. Some events have to lead to their deaths, and someone makes these events happen. The person(s) who started it all and did something that led to all the other events that caused the death of "a pair of star-crossed lovers" (Prologue, 6). The Capulets and Montagues would be most responsible for the deaths of Romeo and Juliet because if their ancestors didn?t start the fighting, and they didn?t continue it, nothing terrible would have happened. The first lines of the book tell us about the hate and envy between the two houses. Choir: "Two households, both alike in dignity,/. . ./From ancient grudge to new mutiny," (Prologue, 1-3). The choir tells us that the whole conflict started a long time ago with really little things, and then grew into huge fights involving many people. No leader of either household ever though about making peace, they were all too busy to spoil everything for the rival family. Only after the death of their children they realized how wrong they were. (Their hate reminds me of Holocaust, when Nazis hated and killed Jews for no particular reason at all, only because they were of a different religion. That kind of hate just makes me mad.) Romeo and Juliet first meet each other at a party at the Capulets? house. They fall in love with each other at the first sight without knowing that they are from rival houses, and when they do learn about it, it is too late. Juliet says: "My only love, sprung from my only hate!/Too early seen unknown, and known too late!" (I, v, 147-148). Juliet realizes that it was a mistake to fall in love with Romeo, because he is one of the people she should watch out for. He is her first and only love, but he is an enemy of her family. Luckily for Romeo, Juliet is smart, and such dumb thing as unreasonable hate between their parents wouldn?t stop her from loving Romeo and getting married with him. She is sorry that their families are enemies, though, because everything would be much easier if they weren?t. So this is the first time when the hate between Capulets and Montagues becomes an obstacle to Romeo and Juliet?s happiness. Only after their children die, do the Montague and Capulet come to their senses. The Prince accuses them of killing Romeo and Juliet: ". . . Capulet, Montague,/See what a scourge is laid upon your hate,/That heavens finds means to kill your joys with love!" (V, iii, 304-306). The Prince makes them see how wrong they were all the time, that all because of their hate, because they couldn?t let their children love each other, Romeo and Juliet died. After that, Capulet and Montague make peace, and Montague even says that he will make a gold statue of Juliet, but what is that going to do, it is too late, nothing will bring their children back. It is totally Capulets? and Montagues? fault that Romeo and Juliet died. If they didn?t hate each other so much, they would let their children marry, and they would be able to live happily ever after. There was only one person that realized how unreasonable the fighting was and even tried to stop it, and he was Benvolio. Benvolio was a Montague, but the Capulets didn?t have a peacemaker such as Benvolio. They only had Tybalt, whose only goal was to destroy all the Montagues. Also we don?t really know how Romeo and Juliet?s parents would have reacted if they had known that their children love each other. Romeo and Juliet didn?t even try to tell them about love between them because they were afraid that their parents wouldn?t understand them, but maybe they would. The problem is, we don?t know, because Capulet and Montague learned about their children?s love when they were already dead. It is still mostly Capulets? and Montagues? fault that Romeo and Juliet died, but maybe

Wednesday, March 4, 2020

Abraham Lincoln and the Telegraph

Abraham Lincoln and the Telegraph President Abraham Lincoln used the telegraph extensively during the Civil War, and was known to spend many hours in a small telegraph office set up in the War Department building near the White House. Lincolns telegrams to generals in the field were a turning point in military history, as they marked the first time a commander in chief could communicate, practically in real time, with his commanders. And as Lincoln was always a skillful politician, he recognized the great value of the telegraph in spreading information from the army in the field to the public in the North. In at least one instance, Lincoln personally interceded to make sure a newspaperman had access to telegraph lines so a dispatch about action in Virginia could appear in the New York Tribune. Besides having an immediate influence on the actions of the Union Army, the telegrams sent by Lincoln also provide a fascinating record of his wartime leadership. The texts of his telegrams, some of which he wrote out for the transmitting clerks, still exist in the National Archives and have been used by researchers and historians. Lincoln's Interest in Techology Lincoln was self-educated and always highly inquisitive, and, like many people of his era, he had a keen interest in emerging technology. He followed the news of new inventions. And he was the only American president to obtain a patent, for a device he designed to assist riverboats to cross sandbars. When the telegraph changed communication in America in the 1840s, Lincoln would certainly have read about those advances. Its likely he knew about the wonders of the telegraph from newspaper articles he read in Illinois before any telegraph wires had reached that far west. When the telegraph started to become common through the settled parts of the nation, including his native Illinois, Lincoln would have had some contact with the technology. As a lawyer working for railroad companies, Lincoln would have been a sender and receiver of telegraph messages. One of the men who would serve as a government telegraph operator during the Civil War, Charles Tinker, had done the same job in civilian life at  a hotel in Pekin, Illinois. He later recalled that in the spring of 1857 he chanced to meet  Lincoln, who was in town on business related to his legal practice. Tinker recalled that Lincoln had watched him sending messages by tapping the telegraph key and writing down incoming messages he converted from Morse code. Lincoln asked him to explain how the apparatus worked. Tinker recalled going into considerable detail, describing even the batteries and electrical coils as Lincoln listened intently. During the campaign of 1860, Lincoln learned he had won the Republican nomination and later the presidency via telegraph messages which arrived in his hometown of Springfield, Illinois. So by the time he moved to Washington to take up residence in the White House he was not only aware of how the telegraph worked, but he recognized its great usefulness as a communication tool. The Military Telegraph System Four telegraph operators were recruited for government service in late April 1861, soon after the attack on Fort Sumter. The men had been employees of the Pennsylvania Railroad, and were enlisted because Andrew Carnegie, the future industrialist, was an executive of the railroad who had been pressed into government service and ordered to create a military telegraph network. One of the young telegraph operators, David Homer Bates, wrote a fascinating memoir, Lincoln In the Telegraph Office, decades later. Lincoln In the Telegraph Office For the first year of the Civil War, Lincoln was barely involved with the militarys telegraph office. But in the late spring of 1862 he began to use the telegraph to give orders to his officers. The Army of the Potomac was becoming bogged down during General George McClellans Peninsula Campaign in Virginia, Lincolns frustration with his commander may have moved him to establish faster communication with the front. During the summer of 1862 Lincoln took up the habit he followed for the rest of the war: he would often visit the War Department telegraph office, spending long hours sending dispatches and waiting for responses. Lincoln developed a warm rapport with the young telegraph operators. And he found the telegraph office a useful retreat from the much busier White House. One of his constant complaints about the White House was that job seekers and various political figures wanting favors would descend upon him. In the telegraph office he could hide away and concentrate on the serious business of conducting the war. According to David Homer Bates, Lincoln wrote the original draft of the Emancipation Proclamation at a desk in the telegraph office in 1862. The relatively secluded space gave him solitude to gather his thoughts. He would spend entire afternoons drafting one of  the most historic documents of his presidency. The Telegraph Influenced Lincoln's Style of Command While Lincoln was able to communicate fairly quickly with his generals, his use of communication was not always a happy experience. He began to feel that General George McClellan was not always being open and honest with him. And the nature of McClellans telegrams may have led to the crisis of confidence that led Lincoln to relieve him of command following the Battle of Antietam. By contrast, Lincoln seemed to have a good rapport via telegram with General Ulysses S. Grant. Once Grant was in command of the army, Lincoln communicated with him extensively via telegraph. Lincoln trusted Grants messages, and he found that orders sent to Grant were followed. The Civil War had to be won, of course, on the battlefield. But the telegraph, especially the way it was used by President Lincoln, did have an effect on the outcome.

Sunday, February 16, 2020

Ga Kpanlogo and Ewe.Traditional West African dance and music Research Paper

Ga Kpanlogo and Ewe.Traditional West African dance and music techniques - Research Paper Example Comparison of Ga Kpanlogo and Ewe Drumming culture Ga Kpanlogo and Ewe are more or less Ghanaian cultures and they are West African in nature. Ga Kpanlogo has its origin in the capital city of Ghana, Accra, given this is the traditional home of the Ga people whose culture is manifested here (Lewis 2002, p.5). This type of dance can be termed as the urban youth dance and drumming. In addition, it is mainly a symbol of commitment among the rapidly growing youth in the capital of Ghana. This is due to the advocacy nature of the culture while trying to shape the political vision of the post-colonial Africa (Music 2001, p.10). Ewe music and drumming, on the other hand, are a combination of musical and drumming activities of the Ewe people of Ghana, Togo and Benin. This community throughout West Africa is known for drumming and their mode is in the form of a sophistication of cross rhythms and polyrhythm borrowing some of their similarities from jazz and Afro-Caribbean music. This form of drumming embraces diversity and therefore, the drums and music are played in so many different ways depending on where the group playing it originates. The Ewe drumming culture is composed of several drums, a bell and a rattle, and this will be different from Ga Kpanlogo, which is generally composed of drums. Each group of complete Ewe drumming is composed of a master drum together with other secondary drums and an iron bell (Lewis 2002, p.8). The Ewe people do not only have a complex drumming culture but also a complex way of their living. One of their beliefs is that if one person is good at drumming and dancing, then i t is because they inherited it from an ancestor who was good at it. It is important to realize that for both the Ga Kpanlogo and the Ewe music systems, they exhibit 16 voices in their voice notations in terms of their female and male voices. It is notable that the music and drumming cultures of the two societies have some aspects in common. The two forms of drumming and music relate to the belief systems of their respective societies. For example, in the Ewe people music helps them reconnect with their ancestors as they feel the power of life. The aspect of ancestors is quite fundamental to the people of Ewe as they possess the ability to define an individual’s destiny, hence they must be pleased through music (Music 2001, p.13). Secondly, both the group music and drumming culture are aesthetic. For example, the Ewe considers powerful music as good music. This is as the force of drumming helps people remember their past victories as very important concepts. The drumming and m usic of the two communities are a significant symbol of their history as well. In the past for example, drumming helped the Ewe people achieve their freedom from their captors through the blessings from their ancestors (Burns 2006, p.24-6). According to this culture, music is a destiny manifested as a gift from the ancestors. For the two communities, music is used for and during special functions such as during war, at funerals and for rituals for the ancestors in the society. After such functions are over, other genres are put in place for continuity (Rentink 2002, p.31-8). Ga Kpanlogo, as played by the Ga ethnic group most of whom live in Accra, existed in the recreational dance and music. It has since spread as bushfire throughout the country, which began just as a mere creative dance (Agawu 1987, p.9). As opposed to the Ewe dance and music, which were influenced by Afro-Caribbean music and jazz, this form of