Friday, May 22, 2020

Aswan High Dam Controls the Nile River

Just north of the border between Egypt and Sudan lies the Aswan High Dam, a huge rockfill dam which captures the worlds longest river, the Nile River, in the worlds third-largest reservoir, Lake Nasser. The dam, known as Saad el Aali in Arabic, was completed in 1970 after ten years of work. Egypt has always depended on the water of the Nile River. The two main tributaries of the Nile River are the White Nile and the Blue Nile. The sources of the White Nile are the Sobat River and Bahr al-Jabal (the Mountain Nile), and the Blue Nile begins in the Ethiopian Highlands. The two tributaries converge in Khartoum, the capital of Sudan, where they form the Nile River. The Nile River has a total length of 4,160 miles (6,695 kilometers) from source to sea. Nile Flooding Before the building of a dam at Aswan, Egypt experienced annual floods from the Nile River that deposited four million tons of nutrient-rich sediment which enabled agricultural production. This process began millions of years before Egyptian civilization began in the Nile River valley and continued until the first dam at Aswan was built in 1889. This dam was insufficient to hold back the water of the Nile and was subsequently raised in 1912 and 1933. In 1946, the true danger was revealed when the water in the reservoir peaked near the top of the dam. In 1952, the interim Revolutionary Council government of Egypt decided to build a High Dam at Aswan, about four miles upstream of the old dam. In 1954, Egypt requested loans from the World Bank to help pay for the cost of the dam (which eventually added up to one billion dollars). Initially, the United States agreed to loan Egypt money but then withdrew their offer for unknown reasons. Some speculate that it may have been due to Egyptian and Israeli conflict. The United Kingdom, France, and Israel had invaded Egypt in 1956, soon after Egypt nationalized the Suez Canal to help pay for the dam. The Soviet Union offered to help and Egypt accepted. The Soviet Unions support was not unconditional, however. Along with the money, they also sent military advisers and other workers to help enhance Egyptian-Soviet ties and relations. Building of the Aswan Dam In order to build the Aswan Dam, both people and artifacts had to be moved. Over 90,000 Nubians had to be relocated. Those who had been living in Egypt were moved about 28 miles (45 km) away, but the Sudanese Nubians were relocated 370 miles (600 km) from their homes. The government was also forced to develop one of the largest Abu Simel temples and dig for artifacts before the future lake would drown the land of the Nubians. After years of construction (the material in the dam is the equivalent to 17 of the great pyramids at Giza), the resulting reservoir was named after the former president of Egypt, Gamal Abdel Nasser, who died in 1970. The lake holds 137 million acre-feet of water (169 billion cubic meters). About 17 percent of the lake is in Sudan and the two countries have an agreement for distribution of the water. Aswan Dam Benefits and Problems The Aswan Dam benefits Egypt by controlling the annual floods on the Nile River and prevents the damage which used to occur along the floodplain. The Aswan High Dam provides about half of Egypts power supply and has improved navigation along the river by keeping the water flow consistent. There are several problems associated with the dam as well. Seepage and evaporation account for a loss of about 12-14% of the annual input into the reservoir. The sediments of the Nile River, as with all river and dam systems, has been filling the reservoir and thus decreasing its storage capacity. This has also resulted in problems downstream. Farmers have been forced to use about a million tons of artificial fertilizer as a substitute for the nutrients which no longer fill the floodplain. Further downstream, the Nile delta is having problems due to the lack of sediment as well since there is no additional agglomeration of sediment to keep erosion of the delta at bay, so it slowly shrinks. Even the shrimp catch in the Mediterranean Sea has decreased due to the change in water flow. Poor drainage of the newly irrigated lands has led to saturation and increased salinity. Over one-half of Egypts farmland in now rated medium to poor soils. The parasitic disease schistosomiasis has been associated with the stagnant water of the fields and the reservoir. Some studies indicate that the number of individuals affected has increased since the opening of the Aswan Dam. The Nile River and now the Aswan High Dam are Egypts lifeline. About 95% of Egypts population live within twelve miles from the river. Were it not for the river and its sediment, the grand civilization of ancient Egypt probably would have never existed.

Saturday, May 9, 2020

Project Group Tips

Project Group Tips There are a few things you can do in order to make working in groups a bit easier and to make you an amazing team member when assigned to a group undertaking. Investing in real estate is about the numbers. There's no city tag for Boston, as it's the original site. You also will likely observe that a number of the groups are so important they define who you are. After developing a project group, it's possible to effectively organize and manage the groups depending on your preferences. You have to decide what is perfect for your group. Again, there are 3 groups inside an organization. Packages provide a modular library strategy to developing applications. Projects can consist of multiple actions and deliverable components or they may just have a single step. Click Alphabetical Sort should you wish to reorder projects alphabetically. Project management is the duty of a project manager. The NASA File constitutes the majority of the papers. Failed projects are a breeze to recognize. Organizations might get several projects at a moment. Higher Employability In PMP training, you cannot be a manager if you are unable to deal with a simple situation or problem. Strength training was created around balance. Certification shows they actually know the skills required for the job and have the ability to manage day-to-day routines. Earning project manager certifications can result in training for many diverse jobs. Even if you have the most prosperous company in the Earth, synergy effect of partnership and co-operation can bring your company to a new degree of succeeding. For instance, let's say a business is thinking about developing a business intelligence program product which will allow organizations to predict customer buying pattern. For instance, if one company produces the materials employed by its partner company, and the partner organization is ready to supply some products at a really low cost or even free in any way, it can lessen the expenses of both companies significantly. Sometimes, two companies compete with one another in the marketplace. Monthly, the entire group can get together to discuss everybody's progress. Earth lay behind the opposite side of the portal. The most important advantage of training in a group is the fact that it encourages you to practice daily and permits the job of planning part of your routine. You willingly take part in the group procedure and production of content. For instance, you may have several Fixed-price project group types, one for every one of your business's revenue recognition scenarios. The very first company attempts to offer you the most intriguing deals to suppliers. The Birth of the Project Group In the event the project group doesn't examine the approximation as being a commitment, then there's hardly any chance the estimate will be fulfilled. Not learning from passed projects is a dependable method to fail in the construction of experience! Dr. Who journeys through time in an extremely advanced time machine which is named TARDIS. If you still have enough time and energy you're able to switch this up in the exact next session. The work was done, the money was spent without council authorization. In reality it's a superb example! It may also allow it to be feasible for your company to survive in the industry. Take a look at our writing services reviews and find out how top rated essay writing companies do the job. The Hidden Facts on the Project Group The actor may be a human or another system. These tables provide additional information about the requirements for altering the project group type as soon as the original project comprises certain kinds of transactions. Operational project management utilizes the exact tools and techniques, and acts under the exact ailments. The focus isn't on the topic of the project but instead on people, tasks and systems. Part of genealogy requires the examination of old photographs in order to spot subjects and time periods. If you would like to learn more on the subject of project management ouronline PMP training or CAPM trainingwill steer you through every facet of process groups.

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Biography of Dr Grace Murrary Hopper Free Essays

Dr. Grace Murray Hopper was born on December 9, 1906. As a child Grace Hopper enjoyed learning about machines, technology and other countries cultures. We will write a custom essay sample on Biography of Dr Grace Murrary Hopper or any similar topic only for you Order Now Following her mother†s love for mathematics and her father†s love for literature, Grace had high expectations for herself. Family life was large influence as she grew up, from the close relationship she had with her grandfather, a surveyor in New York City, she learned about real life at a young age. Her father, Walter Fletcher Murray, was a successful insurance broker, also taught Grace the importance of a good education to succeed in life. Her mother, Mary Campbell Horne Murray, perused a career in geometry by special arrangement even though it was not an encouraged job for women at this time. Grace’s great-grandfather, Alexander Russel, inspired her interest in the Navy. Russel had been a rear admiral for the US Navy, a position Grace also filled in her lifetime. Grace’s parents were progressive in their views of education for females, firmly certifying Grace’s pursuit of higher learning. Her father believed that Grace deserved a college education as much as his son did, and, with the coming of the depression, he thought it overbearing in order to secure a job in desperate economic times. To that end, Grace attended Vassar College in 1924, and quickly distinguished herself there in the disciplines of science, specifically mathematics and physics. She graduated in 1928 with Phi Beta Kappa honors and a Vassar College Fellowship, and with that scholarship financed continued graduate study in math at Yale University, earning there an MA in 1930 and a Ph. D. in 1934, as well as two Sterling Scholarships and an election to Sigma Xi. It was also during that time that Grace married Vincent Hopper, an English teacher from New York University. After the outbreak of World War II, Grace enlisted in the Navy, despite the disapproval of female cadets. With a Wanting to follow her Grandfathers footsteps Grace perused a naval career even though she did not meet the weight and height requirements to join WAVES (Women Accepted for Voluntary Emergency Service). But Grace received a weight and height waiver and took a leave of absence from Vassar College to join the Navy, even though the government thought that Grace’s mathematics skills would be better used at home. But she overcame this obstacle too and joined the Midshipman†s School for Women. Grace graduated first in her class as Lieutenant Junior Grade Grace Murray Hopper. From there Grace was assigned to work at the Bureau of Ordnance Computation Project, at Harvard University, to work with computers. Hopper worked under Commander Howard Aiken, and helped work with the Mark I, the first computer automatically sequenced to calculate the angles for the naval guns when the weather is bad. Hopper continued to work on the Mark II and the Mark III. For her achievements with this series she was given the Naval Ordinance Award in 1946. After the War many of the WAVES went back to their normal lives, but Grace, having just divorced her husband Vincent Foster Hopper, wanted to stay in the Navy. But Grace had just turned forty and the maximum age was thirty-eight, so Grace had to leave. She stayed at the Harvard Computational Lab, still being a member of the Naval Reserves. In 1966, the Navy asked Hopper to retire again, but after seven months, they found they couldn’t work without her and asked her return. Grace was asked to return to work for six months, but she ended up staying indefinitely. Upon graduating, Grace was assigned to the Bureau of Ordinance Computation at Harvard University. There she was greeted by Commander Howard Aiken who introduced her to Mark I as â€Å"a computer engine†. After coming acquainted with the device, Grace received her first mission from Aiken, which was â€Å"to have the coefficients for the interpolation of the arc tangents by next Thursday†. Officers Robert Campbell and Richard Bloch assisted her in the design of her computer program, which consequently made her the third person ever to program the first large-scale automatically sequenced digital computer in the world. When Grace was programming it, Mark I was being used to calculate the angles at which naval guns were to be aimed. A plethora of calculations were needed because the angles depended on weather conditions. Creating programs for the machine was similarly tedious for Grace and the company. â€Å"The coding sheets we used had three columns on the left [for code numbers] and we wrote comments on the right which didn’t go into the computer,† as she said. The values were translated to punch tape, which was subsequently input into the computer. With the accustomed problems associated with the Mark development and the inherent difficulty in its programming, results were slow achievements. One of their many problems was the proverbial computer bug, except that this time it was a literal problem. During the building of the Mark II, the predecessor of the former computer engine, the computer suddenly and for no apparent reason stopped. Upon inspection of the computer, Grace and her team found a moth, which had flown into a relay from an open window. The moth had been pulverized by the relay and consequently had caused the device to fail. The term â€Å"bug† was thus popularized to signify any system malfunction. A new machine BINAC was soon developed programmed in the more effective C-10 language, which according to Grace, â€Å"has been the basis for most codes since. A was add, M was multiply, B was bring, C was clear; it was a beautiful code. † Performed in octal, the programs forced Grace to teach herself octal arithmetic, which she eventually mastered with great proficiency. She subsequently realized a need to simplify the computing process, to make it more layperson friendly. Grace pursued different avenues to achieve this goal. Grace created her first compiler with the Sperry Corporation in 1952. Known as the A-0, the system was a set of instructions that translated mathematical code into machine language. Later the A-1 and A-2 systems evolved under her direction, and became the forerunner to modern programming languages. She pioneered the integration of English into programs, as well, with the B-0 compiler, later to be known as the FLOW-MATIC. Targeted for business applications, Grace’s machine were effectively using FLOW-MATIC to understand English phrases. By 1957 three major languages existed for computers: APT, FORTRAN, and FLOW-MATIC. Each language, however, could only operate on a specific platform, and with the proliferation of disparate languages the use of a single, uniform format came into demand. The universal language to remedy this problem was COBOL, and even though she was not involved in the project, much of which was based on Grace’s FLOW-MATIC. Throughout Grace Hopper’s life she achieved many awards that other women had never been recognized for. In 1964 she was awarded the Society of Women Engineers, SWE Achievement Award. Many people think of the Computer Sciences â€Å"Man of the Year Award† her greatest achievement. When she received this award in 1969, she was the first person ever assigned this award, and the first women to be presented any award by the Data Processing Management Association. Grace was the first woman to be inducted into the Distinguished Fellow British Computer Society in 1973. Grace also achieved many awards from the Colleges and Universities that she attended and taught at, such as the Upsilon Pi Epsilon, Honorary Member from Texas AM; Honorary Doctor of Engineering, Newark College of Engineering; Wilbur Lucius Cross Medal and Yale University. Grace taught at many colleges and universities in her life and gave many motivational speeches, her favorite teaching aid was a piece of wire that was the length of a nanosecond (about one foot), the maximum distance electricity can travel in wire in one-billionth of a second. She would then compare the nano-second to the microsecond that was over a thousand feet long. On January 1, 1992, Grace Hopper died at the age of 85. Even after her death Grace continues to influence many peoples lives. The impact she had on the world of programming has changed computers forever. She also influenced the naval and other military services through her perseverance and her plans for the future. She refused to let anything get in the way of her success. How to cite Biography of Dr Grace Murrary Hopper, Essay examples