Friday, May 22, 2020

Aswan High Dam Controls the Nile River

Just north of the border between Egypt and Sudan lies the Aswan High Dam, a huge rockfill dam which captures the worlds longest river, the Nile River, in the worlds third-largest reservoir, Lake Nasser. The dam, known as Saad el Aali in Arabic, was completed in 1970 after ten years of work. Egypt has always depended on the water of the Nile River. The two main tributaries of the Nile River are the White Nile and the Blue Nile. The sources of the White Nile are the Sobat River and Bahr al-Jabal (the Mountain Nile), and the Blue Nile begins in the Ethiopian Highlands. The two tributaries converge in Khartoum, the capital of Sudan, where they form the Nile River. The Nile River has a total length of 4,160 miles (6,695 kilometers) from source to sea. Nile Flooding Before the building of a dam at Aswan, Egypt experienced annual floods from the Nile River that deposited four million tons of nutrient-rich sediment which enabled agricultural production. This process began millions of years before Egyptian civilization began in the Nile River valley and continued until the first dam at Aswan was built in 1889. This dam was insufficient to hold back the water of the Nile and was subsequently raised in 1912 and 1933. In 1946, the true danger was revealed when the water in the reservoir peaked near the top of the dam. In 1952, the interim Revolutionary Council government of Egypt decided to build a High Dam at Aswan, about four miles upstream of the old dam. In 1954, Egypt requested loans from the World Bank to help pay for the cost of the dam (which eventually added up to one billion dollars). Initially, the United States agreed to loan Egypt money but then withdrew their offer for unknown reasons. Some speculate that it may have been due to Egyptian and Israeli conflict. The United Kingdom, France, and Israel had invaded Egypt in 1956, soon after Egypt nationalized the Suez Canal to help pay for the dam. The Soviet Union offered to help and Egypt accepted. The Soviet Unions support was not unconditional, however. Along with the money, they also sent military advisers and other workers to help enhance Egyptian-Soviet ties and relations. Building of the Aswan Dam In order to build the Aswan Dam, both people and artifacts had to be moved. Over 90,000 Nubians had to be relocated. Those who had been living in Egypt were moved about 28 miles (45 km) away, but the Sudanese Nubians were relocated 370 miles (600 km) from their homes. The government was also forced to develop one of the largest Abu Simel temples and dig for artifacts before the future lake would drown the land of the Nubians. After years of construction (the material in the dam is the equivalent to 17 of the great pyramids at Giza), the resulting reservoir was named after the former president of Egypt, Gamal Abdel Nasser, who died in 1970. The lake holds 137 million acre-feet of water (169 billion cubic meters). About 17 percent of the lake is in Sudan and the two countries have an agreement for distribution of the water. Aswan Dam Benefits and Problems The Aswan Dam benefits Egypt by controlling the annual floods on the Nile River and prevents the damage which used to occur along the floodplain. The Aswan High Dam provides about half of Egypts power supply and has improved navigation along the river by keeping the water flow consistent. There are several problems associated with the dam as well. Seepage and evaporation account for a loss of about 12-14% of the annual input into the reservoir. The sediments of the Nile River, as with all river and dam systems, has been filling the reservoir and thus decreasing its storage capacity. This has also resulted in problems downstream. Farmers have been forced to use about a million tons of artificial fertilizer as a substitute for the nutrients which no longer fill the floodplain. Further downstream, the Nile delta is having problems due to the lack of sediment as well since there is no additional agglomeration of sediment to keep erosion of the delta at bay, so it slowly shrinks. Even the shrimp catch in the Mediterranean Sea has decreased due to the change in water flow. Poor drainage of the newly irrigated lands has led to saturation and increased salinity. Over one-half of Egypts farmland in now rated medium to poor soils. The parasitic disease schistosomiasis has been associated with the stagnant water of the fields and the reservoir. Some studies indicate that the number of individuals affected has increased since the opening of the Aswan Dam. The Nile River and now the Aswan High Dam are Egypts lifeline. About 95% of Egypts population live within twelve miles from the river. Were it not for the river and its sediment, the grand civilization of ancient Egypt probably would have never existed.

Saturday, May 9, 2020

Project Group Tips

Project Group Tips There are a few things you can do in order to make working in groups a bit easier and to make you an amazing team member when assigned to a group undertaking. Investing in real estate is about the numbers. There's no city tag for Boston, as it's the original site. You also will likely observe that a number of the groups are so important they define who you are. After developing a project group, it's possible to effectively organize and manage the groups depending on your preferences. You have to decide what is perfect for your group. Again, there are 3 groups inside an organization. Packages provide a modular library strategy to developing applications. Projects can consist of multiple actions and deliverable components or they may just have a single step. Click Alphabetical Sort should you wish to reorder projects alphabetically. Project management is the duty of a project manager. The NASA File constitutes the majority of the papers. Failed projects are a breeze to recognize. Organizations might get several projects at a moment. Higher Employability In PMP training, you cannot be a manager if you are unable to deal with a simple situation or problem. Strength training was created around balance. Certification shows they actually know the skills required for the job and have the ability to manage day-to-day routines. Earning project manager certifications can result in training for many diverse jobs. Even if you have the most prosperous company in the Earth, synergy effect of partnership and co-operation can bring your company to a new degree of succeeding. For instance, let's say a business is thinking about developing a business intelligence program product which will allow organizations to predict customer buying pattern. For instance, if one company produces the materials employed by its partner company, and the partner organization is ready to supply some products at a really low cost or even free in any way, it can lessen the expenses of both companies significantly. Sometimes, two companies compete with one another in the marketplace. Monthly, the entire group can get together to discuss everybody's progress. Earth lay behind the opposite side of the portal. The most important advantage of training in a group is the fact that it encourages you to practice daily and permits the job of planning part of your routine. You willingly take part in the group procedure and production of content. For instance, you may have several Fixed-price project group types, one for every one of your business's revenue recognition scenarios. The very first company attempts to offer you the most intriguing deals to suppliers. The Birth of the Project Group In the event the project group doesn't examine the approximation as being a commitment, then there's hardly any chance the estimate will be fulfilled. Not learning from passed projects is a dependable method to fail in the construction of experience! Dr. Who journeys through time in an extremely advanced time machine which is named TARDIS. If you still have enough time and energy you're able to switch this up in the exact next session. The work was done, the money was spent without council authorization. In reality it's a superb example! It may also allow it to be feasible for your company to survive in the industry. Take a look at our writing services reviews and find out how top rated essay writing companies do the job. The Hidden Facts on the Project Group The actor may be a human or another system. These tables provide additional information about the requirements for altering the project group type as soon as the original project comprises certain kinds of transactions. Operational project management utilizes the exact tools and techniques, and acts under the exact ailments. The focus isn't on the topic of the project but instead on people, tasks and systems. Part of genealogy requires the examination of old photographs in order to spot subjects and time periods. If you would like to learn more on the subject of project management ouronline PMP training or CAPM trainingwill steer you through every facet of process groups.

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Biography of Dr Grace Murrary Hopper Free Essays

Dr. Grace Murray Hopper was born on December 9, 1906. As a child Grace Hopper enjoyed learning about machines, technology and other countries cultures. We will write a custom essay sample on Biography of Dr Grace Murrary Hopper or any similar topic only for you Order Now Following her mother†s love for mathematics and her father†s love for literature, Grace had high expectations for herself. Family life was large influence as she grew up, from the close relationship she had with her grandfather, a surveyor in New York City, she learned about real life at a young age. Her father, Walter Fletcher Murray, was a successful insurance broker, also taught Grace the importance of a good education to succeed in life. Her mother, Mary Campbell Horne Murray, perused a career in geometry by special arrangement even though it was not an encouraged job for women at this time. Grace’s great-grandfather, Alexander Russel, inspired her interest in the Navy. Russel had been a rear admiral for the US Navy, a position Grace also filled in her lifetime. Grace’s parents were progressive in their views of education for females, firmly certifying Grace’s pursuit of higher learning. Her father believed that Grace deserved a college education as much as his son did, and, with the coming of the depression, he thought it overbearing in order to secure a job in desperate economic times. To that end, Grace attended Vassar College in 1924, and quickly distinguished herself there in the disciplines of science, specifically mathematics and physics. She graduated in 1928 with Phi Beta Kappa honors and a Vassar College Fellowship, and with that scholarship financed continued graduate study in math at Yale University, earning there an MA in 1930 and a Ph. D. in 1934, as well as two Sterling Scholarships and an election to Sigma Xi. It was also during that time that Grace married Vincent Hopper, an English teacher from New York University. After the outbreak of World War II, Grace enlisted in the Navy, despite the disapproval of female cadets. With a Wanting to follow her Grandfathers footsteps Grace perused a naval career even though she did not meet the weight and height requirements to join WAVES (Women Accepted for Voluntary Emergency Service). But Grace received a weight and height waiver and took a leave of absence from Vassar College to join the Navy, even though the government thought that Grace’s mathematics skills would be better used at home. But she overcame this obstacle too and joined the Midshipman†s School for Women. Grace graduated first in her class as Lieutenant Junior Grade Grace Murray Hopper. From there Grace was assigned to work at the Bureau of Ordnance Computation Project, at Harvard University, to work with computers. Hopper worked under Commander Howard Aiken, and helped work with the Mark I, the first computer automatically sequenced to calculate the angles for the naval guns when the weather is bad. Hopper continued to work on the Mark II and the Mark III. For her achievements with this series she was given the Naval Ordinance Award in 1946. After the War many of the WAVES went back to their normal lives, but Grace, having just divorced her husband Vincent Foster Hopper, wanted to stay in the Navy. But Grace had just turned forty and the maximum age was thirty-eight, so Grace had to leave. She stayed at the Harvard Computational Lab, still being a member of the Naval Reserves. In 1966, the Navy asked Hopper to retire again, but after seven months, they found they couldn’t work without her and asked her return. Grace was asked to return to work for six months, but she ended up staying indefinitely. Upon graduating, Grace was assigned to the Bureau of Ordinance Computation at Harvard University. There she was greeted by Commander Howard Aiken who introduced her to Mark I as â€Å"a computer engine†. After coming acquainted with the device, Grace received her first mission from Aiken, which was â€Å"to have the coefficients for the interpolation of the arc tangents by next Thursday†. Officers Robert Campbell and Richard Bloch assisted her in the design of her computer program, which consequently made her the third person ever to program the first large-scale automatically sequenced digital computer in the world. When Grace was programming it, Mark I was being used to calculate the angles at which naval guns were to be aimed. A plethora of calculations were needed because the angles depended on weather conditions. Creating programs for the machine was similarly tedious for Grace and the company. â€Å"The coding sheets we used had three columns on the left [for code numbers] and we wrote comments on the right which didn’t go into the computer,† as she said. The values were translated to punch tape, which was subsequently input into the computer. With the accustomed problems associated with the Mark development and the inherent difficulty in its programming, results were slow achievements. One of their many problems was the proverbial computer bug, except that this time it was a literal problem. During the building of the Mark II, the predecessor of the former computer engine, the computer suddenly and for no apparent reason stopped. Upon inspection of the computer, Grace and her team found a moth, which had flown into a relay from an open window. The moth had been pulverized by the relay and consequently had caused the device to fail. The term â€Å"bug† was thus popularized to signify any system malfunction. A new machine BINAC was soon developed programmed in the more effective C-10 language, which according to Grace, â€Å"has been the basis for most codes since. A was add, M was multiply, B was bring, C was clear; it was a beautiful code. † Performed in octal, the programs forced Grace to teach herself octal arithmetic, which she eventually mastered with great proficiency. She subsequently realized a need to simplify the computing process, to make it more layperson friendly. Grace pursued different avenues to achieve this goal. Grace created her first compiler with the Sperry Corporation in 1952. Known as the A-0, the system was a set of instructions that translated mathematical code into machine language. Later the A-1 and A-2 systems evolved under her direction, and became the forerunner to modern programming languages. She pioneered the integration of English into programs, as well, with the B-0 compiler, later to be known as the FLOW-MATIC. Targeted for business applications, Grace’s machine were effectively using FLOW-MATIC to understand English phrases. By 1957 three major languages existed for computers: APT, FORTRAN, and FLOW-MATIC. Each language, however, could only operate on a specific platform, and with the proliferation of disparate languages the use of a single, uniform format came into demand. The universal language to remedy this problem was COBOL, and even though she was not involved in the project, much of which was based on Grace’s FLOW-MATIC. Throughout Grace Hopper’s life she achieved many awards that other women had never been recognized for. In 1964 she was awarded the Society of Women Engineers, SWE Achievement Award. Many people think of the Computer Sciences â€Å"Man of the Year Award† her greatest achievement. When she received this award in 1969, she was the first person ever assigned this award, and the first women to be presented any award by the Data Processing Management Association. Grace was the first woman to be inducted into the Distinguished Fellow British Computer Society in 1973. Grace also achieved many awards from the Colleges and Universities that she attended and taught at, such as the Upsilon Pi Epsilon, Honorary Member from Texas AM; Honorary Doctor of Engineering, Newark College of Engineering; Wilbur Lucius Cross Medal and Yale University. Grace taught at many colleges and universities in her life and gave many motivational speeches, her favorite teaching aid was a piece of wire that was the length of a nanosecond (about one foot), the maximum distance electricity can travel in wire in one-billionth of a second. She would then compare the nano-second to the microsecond that was over a thousand feet long. On January 1, 1992, Grace Hopper died at the age of 85. Even after her death Grace continues to influence many peoples lives. The impact she had on the world of programming has changed computers forever. She also influenced the naval and other military services through her perseverance and her plans for the future. She refused to let anything get in the way of her success. How to cite Biography of Dr Grace Murrary Hopper, Essay examples

Wednesday, April 29, 2020

Save the Girl Child free essay sample

I don’t know about the world but in India every two seconds a child is born and maybe by the time I end this essay, hundreds of babies would’ve already been born. So what makes giving birth so special? I mean it’s just a simple process of human evolution! Well the answer to this can only be given by the mothers who have experienced that magical moment of giving birth to a child. In medical terms it’s called ‘delivery’, but the emotions that are involved in this simple term called delivery can’t be possible explained in words. The joy of having a baby is just boundless, but unfortunately for some it’s a moment of disappointment. Yes sometimes getting pregnant comes as a surprise and teenage pregnancy is an issue that has to be dealt with and measures like abortion is totally justifiable in that case but the thing I don’t understand is that why are abortions being done just because the GENDER of the baby is not what the parents expected to be. We will write a custom essay sample on Save the Girl Child or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Surveys proved that 98% of gender based abortions are done when the sex of the child is female. Now I cannot think of something more shameful than this, how on earth could anyone, especially any mother could kill a life which is within them just because it’s a girl? Don’t we have any kind of conscience? Why don’t we even rethink before doing such a heinous act? †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Are we the condemned? Every child is a gift of God, and we should happily accept whatever the holy one has sent us. The journey of a life starts under the mother’s womb, at first it’s a tiny embryo then gradually it develops its eyes, ears, and nose nd eventually comes out its limbs and then it takes the shape of a tiny little human baby. Through all this the baby is unaware of the outside world, for them their entire world is under their mother’s womb with just an umbilical cord joining them to their mother. Innocently it kicks inside the mother’s belly to make her aware of its presence. All they want is to come out and feel the world they are born into but wait, there has been a mistake†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. Something isn’t right†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. he baby is a girl†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦! All of a sudden everything changes. All its plans, all she dreamt about the world are now just like shattered pieces of broken glasses. She doesn’t even get a chance to defend herself, no matter how hard she kicks to make her mother not to kill her but all of this in vain. She tries to run away but she can’t because she is trapped inside the womb. She cries, she yells, she pleads for her life, but ultimately she is murdered just because she is a girl. The Indian government has now declared gender based abortions illegal, even the gender of the baby is remained classified and is only disclosed after the baby is born. Several campaigns have been launched in order to protect the girl child. The Times Of India group has been also been actively participating in the process of saving the girl child. It gives me immense pride that I could be a part of it and I salute ONGC for spreading awareness by encouraging activities like this. I hope we succeed in our mission and make the world a safer place for our sisters. Before ending I just want to share the fact that, my mother gave me life, nurtured me and helped me become a man. My sister gave me companionship, she was with me when I was lonely and always supported me. I cannot even imagine my life without these two ladies. The thing I want to explain is that women are a very integral part of our life without them life won’t have been possible. So instead of killing them, if we start to support and respect their existence then I think that would be the greatest contribution from our side. â€Å"Save our sisters, save the girl child†

Friday, March 20, 2020

We Find The Defendant Guilty Of All Charges! Essays - Free Essays

We Find The Defendant Guilty Of All Charges! Essays - Free Essays "We find the defendant guilty of all charges!" Romeo and Juliet Essay It is known that in Shakespeare?s tragedies main characters die in the end, and in his comedies people marry. Since Romeo and Juliet is a tragedy, Romeo and Juliet are going to die in the end. Some events have to lead to their deaths, and someone makes these events happen. The person(s) who started it all and did something that led to all the other events that caused the death of "a pair of star-crossed lovers" (Prologue, 6). The Capulets and Montagues would be most responsible for the deaths of Romeo and Juliet because if their ancestors didn?t start the fighting, and they didn?t continue it, nothing terrible would have happened. The first lines of the book tell us about the hate and envy between the two houses. Choir: "Two households, both alike in dignity,/. . ./From ancient grudge to new mutiny," (Prologue, 1-3). The choir tells us that the whole conflict started a long time ago with really little things, and then grew into huge fights involving many people. No leader of either household ever though about making peace, they were all too busy to spoil everything for the rival family. Only after the death of their children they realized how wrong they were. (Their hate reminds me of Holocaust, when Nazis hated and killed Jews for no particular reason at all, only because they were of a different religion. That kind of hate just makes me mad.) Romeo and Juliet first meet each other at a party at the Capulets? house. They fall in love with each other at the first sight without knowing that they are from rival houses, and when they do learn about it, it is too late. Juliet says: "My only love, sprung from my only hate!/Too early seen unknown, and known too late!" (I, v, 147-148). Juliet realizes that it was a mistake to fall in love with Romeo, because he is one of the people she should watch out for. He is her first and only love, but he is an enemy of her family. Luckily for Romeo, Juliet is smart, and such dumb thing as unreasonable hate between their parents wouldn?t stop her from loving Romeo and getting married with him. She is sorry that their families are enemies, though, because everything would be much easier if they weren?t. So this is the first time when the hate between Capulets and Montagues becomes an obstacle to Romeo and Juliet?s happiness. Only after their children die, do the Montague and Capulet come to their senses. The Prince accuses them of killing Romeo and Juliet: ". . . Capulet, Montague,/See what a scourge is laid upon your hate,/That heavens finds means to kill your joys with love!" (V, iii, 304-306). The Prince makes them see how wrong they were all the time, that all because of their hate, because they couldn?t let their children love each other, Romeo and Juliet died. After that, Capulet and Montague make peace, and Montague even says that he will make a gold statue of Juliet, but what is that going to do, it is too late, nothing will bring their children back. It is totally Capulets? and Montagues? fault that Romeo and Juliet died. If they didn?t hate each other so much, they would let their children marry, and they would be able to live happily ever after. There was only one person that realized how unreasonable the fighting was and even tried to stop it, and he was Benvolio. Benvolio was a Montague, but the Capulets didn?t have a peacemaker such as Benvolio. They only had Tybalt, whose only goal was to destroy all the Montagues. Also we don?t really know how Romeo and Juliet?s parents would have reacted if they had known that their children love each other. Romeo and Juliet didn?t even try to tell them about love between them because they were afraid that their parents wouldn?t understand them, but maybe they would. The problem is, we don?t know, because Capulet and Montague learned about their children?s love when they were already dead. It is still mostly Capulets? and Montagues? fault that Romeo and Juliet died, but maybe

Wednesday, March 4, 2020

Abraham Lincoln and the Telegraph

Abraham Lincoln and the Telegraph President Abraham Lincoln used the telegraph extensively during the Civil War, and was known to spend many hours in a small telegraph office set up in the War Department building near the White House. Lincolns telegrams to generals in the field were a turning point in military history, as they marked the first time a commander in chief could communicate, practically in real time, with his commanders. And as Lincoln was always a skillful politician, he recognized the great value of the telegraph in spreading information from the army in the field to the public in the North. In at least one instance, Lincoln personally interceded to make sure a newspaperman had access to telegraph lines so a dispatch about action in Virginia could appear in the New York Tribune. Besides having an immediate influence on the actions of the Union Army, the telegrams sent by Lincoln also provide a fascinating record of his wartime leadership. The texts of his telegrams, some of which he wrote out for the transmitting clerks, still exist in the National Archives and have been used by researchers and historians. Lincoln's Interest in Techology Lincoln was self-educated and always highly inquisitive, and, like many people of his era, he had a keen interest in emerging technology. He followed the news of new inventions. And he was the only American president to obtain a patent, for a device he designed to assist riverboats to cross sandbars. When the telegraph changed communication in America in the 1840s, Lincoln would certainly have read about those advances. Its likely he knew about the wonders of the telegraph from newspaper articles he read in Illinois before any telegraph wires had reached that far west. When the telegraph started to become common through the settled parts of the nation, including his native Illinois, Lincoln would have had some contact with the technology. As a lawyer working for railroad companies, Lincoln would have been a sender and receiver of telegraph messages. One of the men who would serve as a government telegraph operator during the Civil War, Charles Tinker, had done the same job in civilian life at  a hotel in Pekin, Illinois. He later recalled that in the spring of 1857 he chanced to meet  Lincoln, who was in town on business related to his legal practice. Tinker recalled that Lincoln had watched him sending messages by tapping the telegraph key and writing down incoming messages he converted from Morse code. Lincoln asked him to explain how the apparatus worked. Tinker recalled going into considerable detail, describing even the batteries and electrical coils as Lincoln listened intently. During the campaign of 1860, Lincoln learned he had won the Republican nomination and later the presidency via telegraph messages which arrived in his hometown of Springfield, Illinois. So by the time he moved to Washington to take up residence in the White House he was not only aware of how the telegraph worked, but he recognized its great usefulness as a communication tool. The Military Telegraph System Four telegraph operators were recruited for government service in late April 1861, soon after the attack on Fort Sumter. The men had been employees of the Pennsylvania Railroad, and were enlisted because Andrew Carnegie, the future industrialist, was an executive of the railroad who had been pressed into government service and ordered to create a military telegraph network. One of the young telegraph operators, David Homer Bates, wrote a fascinating memoir, Lincoln In the Telegraph Office, decades later. Lincoln In the Telegraph Office For the first year of the Civil War, Lincoln was barely involved with the militarys telegraph office. But in the late spring of 1862 he began to use the telegraph to give orders to his officers. The Army of the Potomac was becoming bogged down during General George McClellans Peninsula Campaign in Virginia, Lincolns frustration with his commander may have moved him to establish faster communication with the front. During the summer of 1862 Lincoln took up the habit he followed for the rest of the war: he would often visit the War Department telegraph office, spending long hours sending dispatches and waiting for responses. Lincoln developed a warm rapport with the young telegraph operators. And he found the telegraph office a useful retreat from the much busier White House. One of his constant complaints about the White House was that job seekers and various political figures wanting favors would descend upon him. In the telegraph office he could hide away and concentrate on the serious business of conducting the war. According to David Homer Bates, Lincoln wrote the original draft of the Emancipation Proclamation at a desk in the telegraph office in 1862. The relatively secluded space gave him solitude to gather his thoughts. He would spend entire afternoons drafting one of  the most historic documents of his presidency. The Telegraph Influenced Lincoln's Style of Command While Lincoln was able to communicate fairly quickly with his generals, his use of communication was not always a happy experience. He began to feel that General George McClellan was not always being open and honest with him. And the nature of McClellans telegrams may have led to the crisis of confidence that led Lincoln to relieve him of command following the Battle of Antietam. By contrast, Lincoln seemed to have a good rapport via telegram with General Ulysses S. Grant. Once Grant was in command of the army, Lincoln communicated with him extensively via telegraph. Lincoln trusted Grants messages, and he found that orders sent to Grant were followed. The Civil War had to be won, of course, on the battlefield. But the telegraph, especially the way it was used by President Lincoln, did have an effect on the outcome.

Sunday, February 16, 2020

Ga Kpanlogo and Ewe.Traditional West African dance and music Research Paper

Ga Kpanlogo and Ewe.Traditional West African dance and music techniques - Research Paper Example Comparison of Ga Kpanlogo and Ewe Drumming culture Ga Kpanlogo and Ewe are more or less Ghanaian cultures and they are West African in nature. Ga Kpanlogo has its origin in the capital city of Ghana, Accra, given this is the traditional home of the Ga people whose culture is manifested here (Lewis 2002, p.5). This type of dance can be termed as the urban youth dance and drumming. In addition, it is mainly a symbol of commitment among the rapidly growing youth in the capital of Ghana. This is due to the advocacy nature of the culture while trying to shape the political vision of the post-colonial Africa (Music 2001, p.10). Ewe music and drumming, on the other hand, are a combination of musical and drumming activities of the Ewe people of Ghana, Togo and Benin. This community throughout West Africa is known for drumming and their mode is in the form of a sophistication of cross rhythms and polyrhythm borrowing some of their similarities from jazz and Afro-Caribbean music. This form of drumming embraces diversity and therefore, the drums and music are played in so many different ways depending on where the group playing it originates. The Ewe drumming culture is composed of several drums, a bell and a rattle, and this will be different from Ga Kpanlogo, which is generally composed of drums. Each group of complete Ewe drumming is composed of a master drum together with other secondary drums and an iron bell (Lewis 2002, p.8). The Ewe people do not only have a complex drumming culture but also a complex way of their living. One of their beliefs is that if one person is good at drumming and dancing, then i t is because they inherited it from an ancestor who was good at it. It is important to realize that for both the Ga Kpanlogo and the Ewe music systems, they exhibit 16 voices in their voice notations in terms of their female and male voices. It is notable that the music and drumming cultures of the two societies have some aspects in common. The two forms of drumming and music relate to the belief systems of their respective societies. For example, in the Ewe people music helps them reconnect with their ancestors as they feel the power of life. The aspect of ancestors is quite fundamental to the people of Ewe as they possess the ability to define an individual’s destiny, hence they must be pleased through music (Music 2001, p.13). Secondly, both the group music and drumming culture are aesthetic. For example, the Ewe considers powerful music as good music. This is as the force of drumming helps people remember their past victories as very important concepts. The drumming and m usic of the two communities are a significant symbol of their history as well. In the past for example, drumming helped the Ewe people achieve their freedom from their captors through the blessings from their ancestors (Burns 2006, p.24-6). According to this culture, music is a destiny manifested as a gift from the ancestors. For the two communities, music is used for and during special functions such as during war, at funerals and for rituals for the ancestors in the society. After such functions are over, other genres are put in place for continuity (Rentink 2002, p.31-8). Ga Kpanlogo, as played by the Ga ethnic group most of whom live in Accra, existed in the recreational dance and music. It has since spread as bushfire throughout the country, which began just as a mere creative dance (Agawu 1987, p.9). As opposed to the Ewe dance and music, which were influenced by Afro-Caribbean music and jazz, this form of

Sunday, February 2, 2020

Rawls Theory of Justice Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Rawls Theory of Justice - Essay Example Furthermore, in the theory of justice Rawls attempts to resolve the utilitarian and deontological approach to ethics by arguing with the Kantian social contract model. However, Rawls recognized that the justice as fairness is based in the Kant's notion of autonomy. Rawls goes further and explain theory of justice as the original position principle where the justice based in the veiled ignorance, according to Rawls "no one knows his place in society his class position or social status" (Rawls, 1999 (ed), p.118). In the theory of justice Rawls support the element of the Kantian social contract philosophy, Rawls does agree with Kant's ideal of cosmopolitan constitution in term of cosmopolitan theory of justice. This essay will answer the question by critically evaluate Rawls' theory in relation to the cosmopolitan theory of justice, first of all I have to evaluate the core elements of Rawls' theory of justice and than I have to analyses these elements with leading to the cosmopolitan justice theory ( Rawls, translated by Michelle kosch 2007). In the theory of justice Rawls consider the liberty and the different principle which it change of the classical model of the social contract by explain the social inequality within a distributive veil of ignorance. Rawls in the veal of ignorance tries to explain that the individual in the society have a system of equality. Accordingly, Rawls says that each person have an equal right to the most general proposal of equal basic liberties compatible with similar rights of liberties of others (Rawls, 1999 (ed) p.53). Moreover, these basic principles are absolute and cannot be violated, an example of these right freedom from arbitrary arrest and the freedom of speech (Rawls, 1999 (ed), p.53). However, Kant's theory of social contract is based by his emphasis of innate morality, Rawls acknowledge difference and social inequality as compatible within the "justice" paradigm. For example in the term of the inequality distribution Rawls says that inequality is only acceptable in the theory of justice under the second principle. This undermines the Kantian ideas of the cosmopolitan system of justice which based in an innate moral propensity towards democracy as a result of the human intellectual independence. In theory of the rationale for being human Kant's suggests that it is the interrelationship between intellectual independence and morality this considers be that is central to concepts of democracy. In this point, there will be social inequality, Rawls goes further to justify this in his theory of justice model on the grounds that the social differences are acceptable if they are the maximum benefits to the least advantaged members of the society (Rawls, 1999, (eds) p.84) . Rawls goes further and suggests that there can be unequal basic rights in proof of fixed natural characteristics. According to Rawls " if say, men are favoured in the assignment of basic rights, this inequality is justified by the difference principle.only if it is to the advantage of women and acceptable from their standpoint"(Rawls, 1999, (eds) (p.85). However, the difference principle makes it clear that Rawls denouncement of the cosmopolitan justice principle, his argument appears to be inherently flawed in effectively sanctioning discrimination on subjective grounds. Furthermore, there is

Saturday, January 25, 2020

The Meaning Of Trust | Philosophy

The Meaning Of Trust | Philosophy When trusting someone or something, and you are able to build confidence in that object, allowing yourself to be less guarded around it, and allow it to influence us. A dictionary definition of this would be enabling other people to take advantage of your vulnerabilities-but expecting that they will not do this. So how does this compare with how we objectify our emotions? Is it something that can be characterized that something that is able to be trusted? Of course, because our emotions are closely linked with our characters, they feed off of who we are as people. It is seen as immature or undeveloped to allow emotions to influence you in any immense way, and this is why someone would even question arise this question. What is meant by the pursuit of knowledge? Emotion as a way of knowing Because of its ambiguous nature, it can be very hard to define emotions. Even more challenging would be to distinguish it from other sensations such as a temporary mood, or permanent sentimental trait. So with all these other terms in mind, emotion can be defined as the manifestation of the sensations we feel in reaction to our environments and situations around us, that linger for a long period of time. An easy example such as being told unfortunate news or discover something joyful can make us feel different sensations of sadness or happiness. So if these sensations we call emotions are so accurate with the occurrences we face daily, why even question its reliability? Because we, as human beings have also been taught something that would not be considered as natural as the feeling of emotions; we have also been taught morality. The ability to distinguish what we believe is ethically right or wrong, regardless or our instinctive urges, is what makes us different than other forms of life, and the reason we are even able to ask this question. We combat with ourselves in order to achieve goals, defeat lifes trials, and to pursue knowledge. So, maybe the reality of the question is, is it even possible to know when to trust emotions? Or else it may be trying to explain that emotions have limited value for knowledge acquisition if any at all. Emotion as a value judgment Thesis Statement I believe there has to be some instances when we are able to trust our emotions when we are trying to acquire knowledge. Emotions are just a display of the biological responses we has humans experience. Emotion is also as one of the ways of knowing in the IB theory of knowledge. History Define History *Use TOK Definition Genocide Historical event which arises the universal consciousness Rwanda WWII Germany Cambodia UN The World An emotional attachment with the consciousness The knowledge of the laws created due to and for genocide was created due to an emotional response. Also link the genocide information with pain for H.S. Human Sciences Definition human science *use TOK Definition The bodys natural Awareness to diseases and pain The emotions that are felt due to them The Arts When we think of The Art as an area on knowledge, we seem to think of it as one of the areas that is linked closest with emotion. When trying to gain knowledge in the Arts, the use of emotion is fundamental to understanding the pieces and the intentions of the artist. However with knowledge of human emotion, it is easy to understand how the intentions of the artist can be lost in the response of the spectators that view them. Our emotions during viewing different forms of the arts, such as music, literature or drama change with each person, because each person interprets the art differently. This can be seen with an example through music. Recently there has been a revolution of a new age brand of music called dub step, which can be described as a form of electronic music characterized by heavy baselines. Many people find this type of music annoying and irritating, and characterize with dark, negative emotions. Others enjoy it because they experience the music as a stress reliever, because they perceive the beats as melodious and peaceful a way to and an almost cathartic experience happening. Associating these emotions with the people that enjoy this form of music, people make judgments about the dub step audience, our emotional judgment of people; you would say that it had given aid in the process of gathering knowledge. But the stereotype that these persons are placed into, gives a hasty generalization, therefore misleading knowledge. Summary When we, as the knowers question our ability to trust our emotions in the pursuit of knowledge, what we are really trying to discover is, as humans, do we believe that our personalities and human faults allow us to not only discover new aspects in the world around us, but A higher awareness about ourselves or our they just obstacles that we have to overcome. A way to know when our emotions can benefit our pursuit of knowledge is when we are consciously aware that our emotions influence that search. To know if an emotion will lead us down a negative or positive path in our quest for information, can be judged on a persons level of emotional intelligence. Emotion intelligence can be understood by describing it as, a persons ability to monitor and control instinctive and natural urges brought out of us by our emotional state. An easy example to demonstrate emotional intelligence would ask a person to distinguish which emotions were being portrayed on anothers face. But even with such te sts, it is difficult to give an empirical value to something as inexpressible as emotional intelligence. Closing Argument Counter Argument Emotions less valuable than reason as a way of knowing? ^Prove Counter Wrong^ the same level of value as a way of knowing Conclusion In Conclusion, by saying that we should not allow our emotions to influence the pursuit of knowledge is to ask the impossible. As human beings our emotions contribute to the overall motivation in, not only our pursuit of knowledge, but in every endeavor we pursue. I believe it is possible to trust our emotions in every occurrence where knowledge can be gained, but the key is, to not allow your emotions to tamper with the intelligent voice of reason we all have developed due to our moral upbringings. Instead, the emotions will guide in us embracing the more natural inclinations and curiosities that we have instinctively. That is what they are there for. The value of emotion as a way of knowing depends on the kind of knowledge being pursued. If we classify knowledge by sections on the TOK wheel, the value of emotions are very high when concerning issues such as Ethics, The Arts, and à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦. , but other areas that are based mainly off of factual data such as Natural Sciences and Mathematics Aristotle quote Anyone can be angry that is easy. But to be angry with the right person to the right degree, at the right time, for the right purpose and in the right way that is not easy. Aristotle (384-322BCE)

Friday, January 17, 2020

The use of advertising strategy on men

Since the time communication process came into being, role of both electronic and print media has increased where they communicate all sorts of information to people across the globe. In the nineteenth and the twentieth century media has gone to unattainable heights and now in our times it is accessible to almost all parts of the globe. It introduces new trends, brings changes in the present culture of a society and tells about happenings around the world and this is how it also shapes opinions of people. Thus we can say that media plays a vital role in our lives and keeps us informed.But sometimes media takes a negative turn and shows such stuff which has a negative effect in different parts of societies. In ads, they portray women as thin, beautiful, sophisticated human beings and men as wealthy robots which have led to a reduction in self-acceptance of people. Beautiful bodies shown in those ads have increased the desire of common women to go on severe diet plans, go for the lates t whitening products and to go to such extremes which has also led to such disorders as anorexia, bulimia along with emotional disorders.Think of a beautiful woman and think about the definition of a beautiful woman for a second or two; we will realize that the only words that come to our mind, even if we are females, are big eyes, good height, perfect physique, beautiful hair etc instead of a good friend or colleague, perfect mother and a perfect wife etc. Even unconsciously we refer to women by the former words instead of the latter ones. Women are always appreciated by how they appear instead of who they really are, and the society has accepted it. Many factors are responsible for this wrong image projection which includes media as well as the gender discrimination.There are some aspects as to why females are facing such problems and are always cast in those roles that undermine their status and affect the entire female population negatively. One of books written on this subject is â€Å"Beauty Myth† by Naomi Wolf. This book was published in 1991. It focuses on female beauty, how it is used to project the wrong side of a â€Å"real woman† and how this beauty is creating problems for the modern women who want to be perfect by having cosmetic surgeries, or want to be size zero and are developing eating disorders and how this beauty contest is responsible for their jobs etc.Naomi wolf, in her book basically emphasizes that women in their culture are mostly projected as beauty symbols; the more lovely and delicate a woman more appreciation she gets from the members of society. In 1990s many women rose to prestigious positions, they expanded themselves in terms of education, careers along with managing their families but they also became self-conscious and their youthfulness and focused more on ways of retaining it. Our communication and print media has spread a lot in the past two decades and this has lead to an increase in the advertisements.The women of modern times; are constantly bombarded with the images of a perfect girl; who is flawless, she is not a day over 25 years, elegant and smart. Women now judge themselves according to these standards set by the people who undermine women and who are responsible for low self-esteem and low self-confidence in women. They have started to spend more money on surgeries, on diet food and medicines that they think can give them a good body. In the past women were not allowed to educate themselves, they were thought not suitable partners if they read too much.Most of the female population doesn’t need to face this problem now instead they are faced with a more gruesome problem of being pretty and perfect as portrayed in many advertisements that are shown on media. There are many advertisements that portray this beautiful and perfect woman image while undermining rest of the female population. One of the ads is of a skin whitening cream â€Å"Fair and Lovely† which has c aused severe racial problems in South Asia especially in India.Over there majority of the population has a dark complexion and they are always trying to lighten it by going for the latest whitening products launched in their markets or for bleaching their skins. The ad of this beauty product that is on air nowadays in South Asian countries is of a young girl wanting to be an anchor on television. The ad is not in English but one can understand the meaning instantly by watching it. The auditions are in one month and her only hurdle is her dark skin.The ad not only claims skin lightening in one month but also mentions that the girl’s dreams are fulfilled as she secures the job once she uses the product. A similar kind of ad was on air in India some time ago. In this ad they were showing that a girl wanted to be an air-hostess and the same theme was repeated that she became one by using those specific products. All these products project the same thing; fair complexion can help you to do anything and that with fair skin all the dreams are going to be fulfilled.Now if we look into these advertisements closely what they are actually trying to portray is that women are nothing without a fair complexion. They can’t achieve their goals and think high. Beauty is what is needed in today’s world; most of all a light complexion is what is really needed to take a female to higher positions and get her employed in her desired area. In South Asian regions such ads are very common and are watched by thousands. So they are continually affecting the mentality of girls and women. A white complexioned girl thinks that she has all what is needed in a practical world which is actually totally opposite.Then such ads are also constantly making these women self-conscious in a wrong way. These are crushing the confidence of girls. They think that to succeed in life they need to have a fair complexion and have to be the image of a â€Å"perfect woman†. The ot her advertisement that I will take up are the advertisements that show women smokers. These ads are mostly Western but the trend of smoking is also coming to other regions causing a negative image. These ads basically try to show that women who smoke are more powerful, affluent and are considered a threat to men.They also mention that if you want to finish this hushed discrimination and become equivalent to men you have to smoke. That is how they are going to add you up in their circle. The other negative affect of such ads is that if a prominent and popular person of a group smokes maybe her peers will follow suit. They find it fashionable and think that they are desired to do this to be accepted by that person. Such ads can also become favorites of teenagers and they are more likely to start using such just by being impressed by these ads.Naomi Wolf ; the writer of the book; â€Å"Beauty Myth† has not only mentioned the negative effects of beauty and how it is used to under mine women and the role of media in it but she has also written about how media plays a role in making men conscious of the things they lack. Media can’t portray men as beautiful because men who are mostly successful can be short or of dark complexion. So they give the image of a very successful man, living in a luxurious apartment, surrounded by the most expensive items and mostly beautiful women as well; meaning that all his desires are fulfilled.So in a way men have gotten away rather easily than women. They don’t have to have a beautiful bone structure or a pretty face or a good height. The only thing that they really need is bank balance to be attractive, a house in an elite area, most prestigious golf club membership and there you have the most eligible and perfect man. There are also many ads which have a negative image on men. Men are mostly faced with the big problem of baldness. No doubt that this is a serious problem faced by men of both the West and the Eas t but not to an extent to cause depression for the male population.Hair loss is one of the main worries of male population after aging and memory loss. Those who are suffering from hair loss are more likely to feel unattractive and aged as hair loss is directly related to aging. For some men hair is given more priority. They also think that they become less noticeable and are made fun of. Hair loss is a worry for men of all ages but it causes serious concern in young men. Media takes advantage of the above mentioned problem of men and creates a negative effect on them.Nowadays it has become customary of the electronic as well as the print media to show ads of men losing their hair and then getting hair transplants. Advertisement may start off with a before and an after scene. Before: bald man goes somewhere and women don’t give him any attention. After: he goes to that place again after having a hair transplant and he is accepted as a young person. These ad’s cause a v ery depressing and negative image for the men since not all are born with great hairs. These ads are somewhat similar to the whitening cream ads made for women.As they tell us the same thing that men are not eligible, successful and liked by the females and their own colleagues if they are bald, now how many of us think that there is some truth in this sentence because life isn’t about looking great all the time. Hair transplants may be necessary for men working in electronic media and have to be attractive to get more roles and to have a younger look but common people don’t need to have hair transplants. The other category of advertisement which effect men negatively are the ads of energy drinks.They usually say that a person will become super active and will perform all the tasks that he had not been able to do in the past. Some of the other ads are of steroids; which tell men that they can become more competent by using them. Most athletes/sports men tend to use ste roids against the law for winning the specific game and to make world records. The thing that they don’t know is that the steroids also have many side effects which can be mild or severe. Men who use steroids have hormonal imbalances. If they are more aggressive than their growth is also affected.There were some of the ads which affect both men and women negatively making both of these genders extra conscious of their outlook. These advertisements have awakened the human primitive instincts of being likened and cherished by everyone. Now instead of being happy in their lives, success and fortune, both the genders are focusing on how to improve themselves in order to look like the TV models. And if they fail to accomplish this goal, they become depressed and feel that they aren’t worth anything. Other such advertisement includes the ads of new technologies and the new fashions in clothing, accessories etc.are being introduced which is increasing extravagance among peopl e. Looking good is everyone’s right as it also leads to a boost in self-confidence. Maintaining oneself comes in the same category and using products which aid that maintenance program is appreciated and is good. But we should remember to use them within the tolerable limits and not overuse them. Unless and until something is done to stop such kind of advertisements both the genders along with many other parts of society are going to suffer.Men and women may find it easier to relate to ads that show normal people with their normal problems. God has made people beautiful because He also likes beauty which we can see in this world and have a proof. But to use beauty to portray negative images is wrongly done by media. I totally agree with the way ‘Naomi Wolf† has described the way women are used in ads to undermine their personalities. As long as advertisements of such products continue to appear on print and electronic media we will constantly watch pretty faces ma king our lives miserable and increasing our personal suffering.Bibliography Etcoff, N. L. (1999) Survival of the Prettiest: The Science of Beauty. Doubleday Weiss, S. I. (2002) Coping with the Beauty Myth: A Guide for Real Girls. The Rosen Publishing Group Lakoff, R. T. , Scherr, R. L. (1984) Face Value, the Politics of Beauty: The Politics of Beauty. Routledge Bell, E. , Haas, L. , Sells. (n. d. ) From Mouse to Mermaid: The Politics of Film, Gender, and Culture. Indiana University Press Freedman, R. J. (1986) Beauty Bound. Lexington Books

Thursday, January 9, 2020

Essay Evaluating the Facuty in the Education Department

Dr. Barrett has been tasked with evaluating the faculty in the education department. As she works her way through the evaluation she comes across the following issues: †¢ Students are sleeping in classes †¢ Faculty are requesting more resources in order to perform their jobs successfully. o She knows that if the graduation rate and retention are not improved, the board will have a hard time approving budget requests for a program that they see as struggling. †¢ A large number of students are unprepared academically for entry into college. As a result, the majority of students are in remedial courses instead of their core curriculum â€Å"method† courses. This causes enrollment in the core†¦show more content†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¢ Collaborate with the stakeholders at the University including the advisory board members and the accrediting associations to find out what they want to see from graduates of the University. Specifically, the education and humanities program. †¢ Collaborate with the department chairs from all departments, the deans of instruction, and the full-time faculty. †¢ Develop focus groups, survey research, interviews, or series of meetings to develop a comprehensive community outreach plan to obtain feedback from the University employees. Topics would include: ideas to improve graduation and retention for minorities and the student body at large, academic preparedness for freshman students and best practices in the classroom. o To gain buy-in, an employee best practice could be highlighted each month and sent out via email or placed in the campus newsletter to encourage instructors to employ strategies that actively engage the students and build the reputation of the program. Step 2 - Research It would benefit the University to perform research, to gather statistical data that will help to reveal the underlying cause of the low job placement and placement of students after graduation. After the research is complete, the University can provide research, analysis, modeling, and reporting on budgets and revenues for the college. This analysis can provide

Wednesday, January 1, 2020

Theory of Evolution Essay - 1359 Words

Man could not evolve to any other state, because he was made in the ultimate state. He was made in the image and likeness of the Father so there was no need for evolution; hence, there was no sign of evolution from the beginning. Since sin came into the world, man has been deceived into thinking there is evolution. We are not talking about the theory of evolution that says man started from an amoeba or as an ape and eventually began to walk upright; not that evolution, but evolution in the sense of development. There are developments in the earth and therefore it can be considered as a form of evolution, but truly would it be classified as evolving, because man has not gotten better? De-evolution from birth. Man is born and he dies,†¦show more content†¦See how you have been raised to believe a lie. Momma taught us that, daddy taught us that, grandma taught us that. Uncles and aunts, and teachers told you that you need to be independent. They were teaching you to rebel; that is what was being taught to you. Teaching you to rebel, honing that spirit in you to rebel. Get your own. This breeds selfishness. It is about mine, myself, me and I. God was never about me, myself, and I; that is why He made man in His image and likeness, because God is about equality. He is about equality, not about better than or less than. Independence was not evident in the beginning, neither was evolution. If evolution was evident in the beginning then this would suggest that man could be better than God, which would mean then that the man that God made was never very good, he had flaws. God neither creates anything flawed, because he was made in His image and likeness, and that would mean that God would have flaws, and we know God neither has flaws. From the time of beginning there was no de-evolution. The de-evolution state would be that of back sliding and some years ago in our teaching I showed you that Adam never backslide though he disobeyed and sinned. He was never a backslider. Neither did Satan backslide, because there was nothing to backslide to. That is why the Bible said that Satan is the father of lies, which means he is theShow MoreRelatedThe Theory Of Evolution And Evolution1685 Words   |  7 Pages â€Æ' Since Charles Darwin suggested the theory of evolution by natural selection in this best-known work, On the Origin of Species, controversy has followed. As a (computer) scientist, this student has no personal problem with the theory of evolution. However, since the debate of whether or not evolution actually exists is still alive and well today, a brief exploration of the arguments against is not only interesting, but also increasingly necessary. 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